Starch Industry in India

Starch is an abundant carbohydrate distributed worldwide in plants. Starch has been a major ingredient in man's diet over the centuries. In addition it has become a major industrial raw material. Plant seeds, roots and tubers are all sources of industrial starch production. The commercial realities of the starch recovery process limit the industrial sources mainly to wheat, maize and tapioca. Indian starch industry mainly consumes maize as input raw material. Also some industries are tapioca based.

Maize is doing wonderful things in our everyday life. Maize is present in one form or other in the Food we eat, the Milk we drink, the Chocolates/Biscuits we take, tThe Clothes we wear, the Paper we read and the Medicines we take.

Maize (Corn) contains about 70% starch, other components being protein, fibers and fat. The basis of the maize milling process is the separation of the maize kernel into its different parts. Maize starch is produced by the wet milling process, which involves grinding of softened maize and separation of corn oil seeds (germs), gluten (proteins), fibers (husk) and finally pure starch.

Byproducts from Maize : The byproducts from maize based industries find various applications:

i. Maize(Corn) Steep Liquor : It contains amino acids, proteins and are used by antibiotics drugs manufacturers. Also it is a large source of biogas, which is being used as fuel for driers, boilers etc.

ii. Maize Gum : Corn Oil is produced by expelling oil from the germs. Corn Oil finds applications in food and other chemical industries. Maize oil cake obtained after expelling oil is used as cattle and poultry feeds.

iii. Maize Gluten : Maize Gluten contains high protein content and it is used as cattle and poultry feeds.

iv. Maize Husk : It contains starch, protein and fat as minor components and mainly consumed as cattle feed.

Starch has a multitude of food and industrial applications. Starch plays a leading role in determining the texture of many foods and texture is of vital concern to both the consumers and the manufacturers. Appearance, feel to the touch, softeners and finally mouth feel all contribute to the concept of texture. Uses of Maize Starch Maize starch forms viscous, relatively short and opaque paste with cereal flavor. Its paste sets to stiff gels. It is widely used for thickening sauces, gravies, puddings and pie fillings. Maize starch finds numerous uses in the baking industry for the production of cakes, cookies, in ice-cream preparations etc.

In Paper industry a large quantity of starch is consumed as a surface-sizing agent, as a binder, as a paper coating agent etc. In textile industry, starch is used in sizing to strengthen the warpyarn, in finishing and changing the appearance of fabric after it is bleached, dyed or printed, in printing and increase the consistency of printing pastes.

Also starch is used as a component in finishing agent to glaze and polish sizing thread.

Starch Derivatives : Starch when cooked forms high viscous gels and this property limits its applications. But by acid and other chemical treatments at varying temperatures the characteristics of the native starch is modified to suit various end users. Following products are made by the chemical / acid and heat treatments of starches.

* White Dextrins
* Yellow Dextrins
* British Gums

These products are partly soluble in water and finds several applications in food industry as Thickner in Sauces and Soups Gel Former in Puddings, Suspension Stabilizer, Bodying agent in Baking.

Modified Starches such as oxidised starch, pregelatinized starch and cationic starch find wide applications in paper industry, textile industry, Confectionary etc.

Starch Sweetners : Starch based sweeteners are other class of products manufactured in starch industries. A variety of sweeteners for very specific end users are produced by acid/enzyme hydrolysis of starch. Following starch sweeteners are available in the market : Malto dextrin, Liquid glucose, Dextrose monohydrate, High Maltose syrup, Liquid Sorbitol.

These starch based sweeteners find various end users, a few are mentioned below:

Maltodextrin : In syrup and powder form used in food, baby food and medical preparations as a non sweet, nutritive agent.

Liquid Glucose : Widely used in the confectionary bakery, jam, canning and leather industries.

Liquid Dextrose: In fermentation industries for the manufacture of dextrose monohydrates, fructose and Sorbitol syrups.

Dextrose Monohydrates: A crystalline free flowing product used in food and pharmaceutical industries for Glucose-D, Glucose-C manufacture etc.

High Maltose Syrup : As a malt replacement in brewing industry, in confectionary for Candy making.

Sorbitol Syrup: It is hydrogenated dextrose syrup not having any reducing sugars widely used by tooth paste, pharmaceuticals, cosmetics and tobacco industries.

State-wise List of Starch Industries in India:

Anil Starch Products Ltd, Ahmedabad
Maize Products Ltd, Ahmedabad
Gujarat Ambuja Starch Products Ltd, Ahmedabad
Gulshan Polyols Ltd, Jhagadia Industrial Estate, Bharuch

Riddhi Siddhi Glucobiols Ltd, Gokak, Belgaum District

Sahyadri Starch & Industries Ltd, MIDC, Miraj
Universal Starch Products Ltd, Dhule
Yaswant Glucose Ltd, Sangli
Kissan Starch Ltd, Dhule

Madhya Pradesh
Rajaram Corn Products Ltd
Tirupathi Starch Products Ltd, Indore

Santhosh Maize & Industries Ltd, Salem
Varalaxmi Starch Ltd, Salem
Kamala Sugars Ltd, Coimbatore

Andhra Pradesh
Gayathri Starch Ltd, Hyderabad
Vensa Biotek Ltd, Samalkot

Sukhjit Starch Products Ltd, Phagwara

Bharat Starch Products Ltd, Haryana

Major End-Users of Starch and Starch based Products

Hindustan Lever Ltd,
Colgate Palmolive Ltd,
Lotte India Ltd,
Perfetti Vanmelle India Ltd,
Nutriene Confectionary Ltd,
ITC Limited,
Wrigley India Ltd,
Cadbury India Ltd,
Aviat Chemicals Ltd,
Hindustan Latex Ltd,
Glaxo Smithkline Ltd,
Merck India Ltd,
Kamani Oil Mills,
Wardex Laboratories Ltd,
Griffon Labs Ltd,
Emcure Pharma Ltd,
Britannia India Ltd,
Godrej Agrovet Ltd,
Modern Food Industries Ltd,
Nestle India Ltd,
Heinz India Ltd, Campco Ltd,
Bombay Dyeing Ltd,
Kissan Foods Ltd,
Marico Oil Industries