Zonkerala Articles -> Starch Industry in India
is an abundant carbohydrate distributed worldwide in plants. Starch has
been a major ingredient in man's diet over the centuries. In addition it
has become a major industrial raw material. Plant seeds, roots and tubers
are all sources of industrial starch production. The commercial realities
of the starch recovery process limit the industrial sources mainly to
wheat, maize and tapioca. Indian starch industry mainly consumes maize as
input raw material. Also some industries are tapioca based.
Maize is doing wonderful things in our everyday life. Maize is present in
one form or other in
The Food we eat
The Milk we drink
The Chocolates/Biscuits we take
The Clothes we wear
The Paper we read
The Medicines we take
Maize (Corn) contains about 70% starch, other components being protein,
fibers and fat. The basis of the maize milling process is the separation
of the maize kernel into its different parts. Maize starch is produced by
the wet milling process, which involves grinding of softened maize and
separation of corn oil seeds (germs), gluten (proteins), fibers (husk) and
finally pure starch.
Byproducts from Maize
The byproducts from maize based industries find various applications:
Maize(Corn) Steep Liquor : It contains amino acids, proteins and are
used by antibiotics drugs manufacturers. Also it is a large source of
biogas, which is being used as fuel for driers, boilers etc.
: Corn Oil is produced by expelling oil from the germs. Corn
Oil finds applications in food and other chemical industries. Maize oil
cake obtained after expelling oil is used as cattle and poultry feeds.
: Maize Gluten contains high protein content and it is
used as cattle and poultry feeds.
Maize Husk : It contains starch, protein and fat as minor components
and mainly consumed as cattle feed.
Concept of Texture
Starch has a multitude of food and industrial applications. Starch plays a
leading role in determining the texture of many foods and texture is of
vital concern to both the consumers and the manufacturers. Appearance,
feel to the touch, softeners and finally mouth feel all contribute to the
concept of texture.
Uses of Maize Starch
Maize starch forms viscous, relatively short and opaque paste with cereal
flavor. Its paste sets to stiff gels. It is widely used for thickening
sauces, gravies, puddings and pie fillings. Maize starch finds numerous
uses in the baking industry for the production of cakes, cookies, in
ice-cream preparations etc.
In Paper industry a large quantity of starch is consumed as a
surface-sizing agent, as a binder, as a paper coating agent etc. In
textile industry, starch is used in sizing to strengthen the warpyarn, in
finishing and changing the appearance of fabric after it is bleached, dyed
or printed, in printing and increase the consistency of printing pastes.
Also starch is used as a component in finishing agent to glaze and polish
Starch when cooked forms high viscous gels and this property limits its
applications. But by acid and other chemical treatments at varying
temperatures the characteristics of the native starch is modified to suit
various end users. Following products are made by the chemical / acid and
heat treatments of starches.
These products are partly soluble in water and finds several applications
in food industry as
Thickner in Sauces and Soups
Gel Former in Puddings
Bodying agent in Baking
Modified Starches such as oxidised starch, pregelatinized starch and
cationic starch find wide applications in paper industry, textile
industry, Confectionary etc.
Starch based sweeteners are other class of products manufactured in starch
industries. A variety of sweeteners for very specific end users are
produced by acid/enzyme hydrolysis of starch. Following starch sweeteners
are available in the market : Malto dextrin, Liquid glucose, Dextrose
monohydrate, High Maltose syrup, Liquid Sorbitol.
These starch based sweeteners find various end users, a few are mentioned
Maltodextrin : In syrup and powder form used in food, baby food and
medical preparations as a non sweet, nutritive agent.
Liquid Glucose : Widely used in the confectionary bakery, jam, canning and
Liquid Dextrose: In fermentation industries for the manufacture of
dextrose monohydrates, fructose and Sorbitol syrups.
Dextrose Monohydrates: A crystalline free flowing product used in food and
pharmaceutical industries for Glucose-D, Glucose-C manufacture etc.
High Maltose Syrup : As a malt replacement in brewing industry, in
confectionary for Candy making.
Sorbitol Syrup: It is hydrogenated dextrose syrup not having any reducing
sugars widely used by tooth paste, pharmaceuticals, cosmetics and tobacco
State-wise List of Starch Industries in India:
Anil Starch Products Ltd, Ahmedabad
Maize Products Ltd, Ahmedabad
Gujarat Ambuja Starch Products Ltd, Ahmedabad
Gulshan Polyols Ltd, Jhagadia Industrial Estate, Bharuch
Riddhi Siddhi Glucobiols Ltd, Gokak, Belgaum District
Sahyadri Starch & Industries Ltd, MIDC, Miraj
Universal Starch Products Ltd, Dhule
Yaswant Glucose Ltd, Sangli
Kissan Starch Ltd, Dhule
Rajaram Corn Products Ltd
Tirupathi Starch Products Ltd, Indore
Santhosh Maize & Industries Ltd, Salem
Varalaxmi Starch Ltd, Salem
Kamala Sugars Ltd, Coimbatore
Gayathri Starch Ltd, Hyderabad
Vensa Biotek Ltd, Samalkot
Sukhjit Starch Products Ltd, Phagwara
Bharat Starch Products Ltd, Haryana
Major End-Users of Starch and Starch based Products
Hindustan Lever Ltd,
Colgate Palmolive Ltd,
Lotte India Ltd,
Perfetti Vanmelle India Ltd,
Nutriene Confectionary Ltd,
Wrigley India Ltd,
Cadbury India Ltd,
Aviat Chemicals Ltd,
Hindustan Latex Ltd,
Glaxo Smithkline Ltd,
Merck India Ltd,
Kamani Oil Mills,
Wardex Laboratories Ltd,
Griffon Labs Ltd,
Emcure Pharma Ltd,
Britannia India Ltd,
Godrej Agrovet Ltd,
Modern Food Industries Ltd,
Nestle India Ltd,
Heinz India Ltd, Campco Ltd,
Bombay Dyeing Ltd,
Kissan Foods Ltd,
Marico Oil Industries